Solar Energy

Monocrystalline Solar Panels: How They Work and Why They Are Efficient?

Monocrystalline Solar Panels: How They Work and Why They Are Efficient?

Monocrystalline solar panels are a type of photovoltaic panel that converts sunlight directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect.

Now, Let’s examine together how Monocrystalline Solar Panels work and why these panels are efficient.

Structural Features: Monocrystalline solar panels are made from a single crystal structure based on highly purified silicon. The silicon used in these panels is highly purified to create a smooth and continuous crystal lattice structure. This is how a smooth, dark-colored panel with rounded edges is created.

Photovoltaic Effect: Monocrystalline solar panels take advantage of the photovoltaic effect, in which photons, light particles from sunlight, activate electrons in silicon atoms.

Absorption of Photons: When sunlight hits the surface of the monocrystalline solar panel, the photons are absorbed by the silicon atoms. Photons transfer their energy to the electrons in the silicon atoms and cause their excitation by this transfer.

Electron Excitation: The absorbed energy raises the electrons in the silicon atoms to a higher energy level. Thus, it allows them to escape from their original position in the crystal lattice structure.

Electron Flow: The displaced and energized electrons now begin to move freely in the crystal lattice, flowing through the crystal structure so to speak, creating a flow of electrons known as electric current. The metal conductive plates on the top and bottom of the panel collect this current. The collected current is passed through the cables for external use.

Conductive Plates and Electrical Circuit: Metal conductive plates at the top and bottom of the panel capture the flowing electrons and direct them for external use.

Electrical Output: Captured electrons pass through the external circuit and create usable electrical power. This power can be used to power various devices, charge batteries, or feed a power grid for distribution.

Efficiency: Monocrystalline solar panels are known for their high efficiency levels compared to other types of solar panels.

We can explain the reason as follows:

Crystal Structure: The uniform crystal structure of monocrystalline panels facilitates the travel of electrons being conducive to consistent electron flow. In this way, electron distortion caused by the crystal boundaries is also experienced at the lowest level.

Purity of Silicon: Monocrystalline solar panels use pure silicon to increase their performance. High-purity silicon provides better electron conductivity. This also means less energy loss. Less energy loss also leads to higher efficiency.

More Efficiency at High Temperatures: Monocrystalline solar panels perform better at high temperatures. High-quality silicon and efficient crystal structure protect the monocrystalline solar panel against efficiency losses caused by temperature rise in hot climates or during the summer months.

High Conversion Efficiency: Monocrystalline solar panels typically feature higher conversion efficiency than other solar panel technologies. What is meant by conversion efficiency is the percentage of sunlight that can actually be converted into usable electricity. This ratio is quite high for monocrystalline panels. It seems that monocrystalline solar panels can convert a significant portion of sunlight into electricity.

Space Efficiency: Monocrystalline panels can generate more electricity in a given surface area with space efficiency. Thus, these panels become a space-saving option for installations with limited roof or floor space.

Low Light Performance: Monocrystalline panels do not lose their current performance even at low light levels easily. These panels can even generate electricity from scattered light on cloudy days or in shady areas.

Durability and Longevity: Monocrystalline solar panels are known for their durability and longevity among other solar panels. Because they can maintain their durability and efficiency even in a wide variety of weather conditions. Their solid construction and high-quality materials contribute greatly to their reputation as efficient and long-lasting panels among other panels.

References

1. Linquip. Everything you need to know about monocrystalline solar panel. Access date: 16 June 2023. Url address: https://www.linquip.com/blog/what-is-a-monocrystalline-solar-panel/ Anaa Lavaa /

2. Anern. What is a monocrystalline solar panel? Access date: 16 June 2023. https://www.anerngroup.com/what-is-a-monocrystalline-solar-panel.html

3. Access date: 16 June 2023. https://www.theengineerspost.com/solar-panel-types/

4. Dobrzanski, L. A. , Drygala, A. , Giedroc, M. and Macek, M. (2012). Monocrystalline silicon solar cells applied in photovoltaic system. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 53 (1), 7-13.

5. Zaini, N. H. , Ab Kadir, M. Z. , ; Izadi, M. and Ahmad, N. I (2015). The effect of temperature on a mono-crystalline solar pv panel. IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion.

6. Mirzaei, M., Mohiabadi, M. Z. ( 2017). A comparative analysis of long-term field test of monocrystalline and polycrystalline PV power generation in semi-arid climate conditions. Energy for Sustainable Development, 38, 93-101.

7. Sugianto, S. (2020). Comparative analysis of solar cell efficiency between monocrystalline and polycrystalline. INTEK Jurnal Penelitian, 7 (2), 92-100.

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